We continue to see quite a few kids in our office each year with concussions. Usually this is an athletic injury, but it is commonly seen in others as well. Concussions have always been a part of sports, especially those involving high-energy collisions, particularly football, soccer, hockey and basketball. Intensive research, along with lawsuits like the one the NFL Players Association brought against the NFL, are causing research to move rapidly to help us get a firmer grasp on how to prevent and manage concussions.
A concussion is a trauma-induced alteration in mental status that usually does not involve a loss of consciousness and does not have to be a result of a blow to the head. In fact, only ten percent of concussions are associated with a loss of consciousness.
A concussion is the result of soft brain tissue moving violently inside the bony skull. It is important to realize that this movement can result in varying degrees of microscopic injuries to the brain, the majority of which do not show up on radiologic imaging studies like CT or MRI scans.
Concussions alter the ability of brain cells to properly use energy to communicate. The brain’s demand for energy exceeds what can be delivered, resulting in the many concussion signs (observable by others) and symptoms (what the athlete feels). The injured brain is at increased risk of additional injury, sometimes catastrophic, until this mismatch of energy supply and demand is resolved.
Concussion signs may include appearing dazed, stunned or confused. Observers may note the person is moving clumsily, saying nonsensical things, or exhibiting mood changes such as aggression or sadness. It may cause amnesia, either retrograde (forgetting what happened before the injury) or anterograde (forgetting events after the incident – a more concerning sign).
Most sufferers usually report a headache. Other common symptoms may include nausea, dizziness, balance problems, blurred or double vision, light or noise sensitivity, “brain fog,” concentration or memory problems, fatigue and changes in sleep patterns.
Athletes who sustain a concussion should be immediately removed from the contest or practice until they are evaluated by a certified athletic trainer or physician who is familiar with concussion management. This is especially critical in younger athletes who appear to be more susceptible to potential severe neurologic injury if they are allowed to return to competition before recovering from a concussion.
Although a patient’s signs and symptoms may appear to resolve, the very real possibility exists that the brain has not recovered completely. There are subtle neurologic changes that often can’t be picked up by doing a medical history or physical examination.
Computerized neurologic testing such as ImPACT, has enhanced our ability to manage concussions more effectively. These tests are much more objective and, most importantly, are helping us get athletes back on the field more safely. Typically, athletes take a baseline examination at the start of the season and repeat the test following a concussion. Athletes are usually kept out of competition until their physical exam is normal and their test returns to their baseline.
All NFL and NHL teams and most colleges utilize concussion management software. Thankfully, its use has filtered down to the high school level in most areas. While not infallible, most doctors consider these tests to be a standard aid in concussion management. However, it is important to note that neurologic tests, such as ImPACT, are but one tool in determining a patient’s readiness to return to normal activity.
You may have seen headlines in the last year or so like this one from the New York Times: “Concussions Can Be Detected With New Blood Test Approved by FDA.” Unfortunately, this is totally inaccurate. The test was developed to detect two proteins released into the bloodstream that indicate there is bleeding in the brain, NOT to aid in the diagnosis of concussion. The test will be used primarily in emergency rooms to determine if a patient needs a CT scan to evaluate for bleeding in the brain. The diagnosis of concussion remains a clinical one, based on the history, physical exam and some additional tools.
There are steps that can be taken to help reduce the risk of suffering a concussion. It is critical to teach players to wear properly fitted safety gear and instruct them on proper technique, especially tackling in football. Prevention of falls is also important in non-athletes as well.
Everyone should understand the potential serious nature of even a “minor” concussion. Athletes, in particular, need to be taught to report their own or their teammates’ symptoms or signs immediately.
More information may be found at www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury/